Bhutan is a land-locked country with mountainous terrain. The Bhutanese are divided into many ethnic groups such as the Ngalops - Western Region, Sharshops - Eastern Region, Brokpas & Layaps - Highlanders, Nepalese Origins - Southern Region each with their distinct language and dress. There are 14 main different different dialects are spoken even today. The Highlanders still live a nomadic life depend on their livestock. According to the latest census recorded in 2012 Bhutan has a population of 700,000. Thmphu is perhaps the smallest capital in the world with an estimated population of 100,000.
Bhutan's society being made up of four broad groups: the Ngalop in the western regiona, the Sharchop in the eastern region and Nepalese origins in the southern region are basically influenced by geographical division. The Ngalop (a term thought to mean the earliest risen or first converted) are people of Tibetan origin who migrated to Bhutan as early as the 9th century.